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[[Image:Parkplace.jpeg|right|Park Place Productions logo]]
 
[[Image:Parkplace.jpeg|right|Park Place Productions logo]]
'''Park Place Productions''' was a development company near San Diego, California, United States [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_1996_Dec_19/ai_18969263/], started by Michael Knox and Troy Lyndon in 1989 [http://www.troylyndon.com/] with $3,000 and a credit card. [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_1996_Dec_19/ai_18969263/] It eventually grew to be North America's largest independent game development company. [http://www.troylyndon.com/] However, by 1994, Park Place was experiencing financial problems. Further compounding matters, Sony Imagesoft opened up a studio nearby and hired a number of former Park Place employees. [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5247/is_n4_v15/ai_n28635934/]
+
'''Park Place Productions''' (originally called Park Place Production Team; assumed name of Maktal, Inc.) was a development company near San Diego, California, started in 1989 by programmers Michael Knox and Troy Lyndon with $3,000 on Knox's credit card. Its first product, ''ABC Monday Night Football'', sold 100,000 units (Sauer). In a few years, Park Place grew to be North America's largest independent game developer with over 100 employees and clients including Electronic Arts, Acclaim, and Virgin (Lyndon).
  
Spirit of Discovery (incorporated January 2, 1992 [http://california.14thstory.com/spirit-of-discovery-inc.html]) was established as Park Place's publishing arm for DOS and Windows software. [http://www.liontelpartners.com/press/park-place-productions-press-release.pdf] It eventually relocated to Kaneohe, Hawaii. [http://www.spiritofdiscovery.com/main7.html]
+
This meteoric rise brought rapid expansion. A green screen studio was built, which helped the company create more realistic sports games (Lyndon). Nearby contract developer [[Knight Technologies]] was acquired (Forhan 41). Software testing was moved in-house (then spun off into a company called Bug Busters) (Private). A publishing arm for DOS and Windows titles called Spirit of Discovery was formed ("Entrepreneur of the Year"), which was buoyed by a "hybrid publishing agreement" with Konami (Sauer). (Incidentally, the Knox family continued to use the name after they relocated to Kaneohe, Hawaii [Spirit of Discovery].) Park Place also branched out into edutainment and other applications such as CAD software (Sauer).
  
Park Place acquired contract developer [[Knight Technologies]] (in 1993?). [http://www.allgame.com/person.php?id=2670]
+
1991 brought what might have been the company's first major setback, the loss of programmer Jim Simmons to Electronic Arts. Simmons was a high school friend of Lyndon's who programmed the first ''John Madden Football'' and ''NHL Hockey'' games for the Sega Genesis. EA then opted to [[Digital Arts|contract him directly]] for future upgrades, effectively cutting out Park Place ("John Madden Hockey").
  
Lyndon later started Christian game maker Left Behind Games in 2001. Knox served on the board of directors for a time. [http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=13718]
+
Nevertheless, Park Place persevered, continuing to take on more projects from other publishers. However, by late 1993, the company had clearly overextended itself. As deadlines were missed, those same publishers quit paying and pulled their contracts ("Harsh"). At least one — RazorSoft — sued for breach of contract (District Court). Compounding matters, Lyndon left that November because of a dispute ("Empty"), though he remained a passive shareholder. Former employees accused Park Place of nepotism (as several members of Knox's family were employees) and religious zealotry, which Knox denied (Kunkel). Eventually the company couldn't make payroll ("Empty").
  
Knox died of colon cancer on September 15, 2009, at the age of 48. [http://gdri.smspower.org/wiki/index.php/Blog:More_About_Michael_Knox_and_Park_Place]
+
Sony, Park Place's largest customer at this point, offered to buy the beleaguered firm, but Knox refused to sell. As a result, 30 employees resigned on December 27, 1993, to join a new Sony Imagesoft operation in San Diego's Sorrento Valley (what became Sony Interactive Studios America/989 Studios) ("Empty"). Park Place attempted to rebuild with a much smaller staff, but the damage was done (Private). A multi-million dollar lawsuit was later filed against Sony, alleging the electronics giant attempted a hostile takeover ("African-American software company").
  
'''[[About:Research Methods|Research Methods]]:''' Actual mentions, online resources (see [[#Links|Links]])
+
After leaving Park Place, Lyndon established Studio Arts Multimedia, which entered into an exclusive development contract with Corel. Most of these projects were canceled after that company decided to focus on its newly acquired WordPerfect software (Lyndon). Lyndon later ran Christian game maker Left Behind Games, started in 2001. Knox served on the board of directors for a time (Jenkins). Knox died of colon cancer on September 15, 2009, at age 48 ("Software Expert").
 +
 
 +
<small>'''WORKS CITED'''
 +
*"African-American software company sues Sony Corp. for close to $500 million." ''Business Wire'', 19 Dec. 1996, ''The Free Library'', https://www.thefreelibrary.com/African-American+software+company+sues+Sony+Corp.+for+close+to+%24500...-a018969263. Accessed 16 May 2017.
 +
*Bauder, Don. "Park Place Isn’t Bankrupt, but Payroll's Empty." ''The San Diego Union-Tribute'', 4 Jan. 1994, ''Newsbank'', http://www.newsbank.com. Accessed 8 May 2017.
 +
*Bauder, Donald C. "Software Firm’s Collapse Is Fast, Harsh." ''The San Diego Union-Tribute'', 1 Jan. 1994, ''Newsbank'', http://www.newsbank.com. Accessed 8 May 2017.
 +
*District Court of Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. ''Razorsoft, Inc. v. Maktal, Inc.'' 12 Sep. 1995. ''Justia'', https://law.justia.com/cases/oklahoma/court-of-appeals-civil/1995/4379.html. Accessed 15 Sep. 2018.
 +
*Forhan, Carl. "Straight from the Cat’s Mouth." ''Classic Gamer Magazine'', p. 40–42, ''Digital Press'', http://www.digitpress.com/library/magazines/cgm/cgm_4.pdf. Accessed 16 May 2017.
 +
*Harris, Blake J. "John Madden Hockey." ''Read-Only Memory'', https://readonlymemory.vg/john-madden-hockey/. Accessed 15 Sep. 2018.
 +
*"Inc. Magazine's Entrepreneur of the Year Award Goes to Park Place Productions Executives." Jul 1993, ''Park Place Productions'', http://www.liontelpartners.com/press/park-place-productions-press-release.pdf. Accessed 16 May 2017.
 +
*Jenkins, David. "Left Behind Games Begins Executive Purge." ''Gamasutra'', 30 Apr. 2007, http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=13718. Accessed 16 May 2017.
 +
*Kunkel, Bill. "Park Place: Raid or Rescue?" ''Electronic Games'', p. 10-12, ''Internet Archive'', https://archive.org/details/Electronic-Games-1994-05. Accessed 15 Sep. 2018
 +
*Lyndon, Troy A. "Troy Lyndon - About." 19 Jan. 2014, http://www.troylyndon.us/about.html. Accessed 16 May 2017.
 +
*Private. E-mail interview. Received by CRV, 11 Nov. 2011.
 +
*Sauer, Mark. "Park Place Pruductions [sic] Dynamic Duo." ''The San Diego Union-Tribute'', 24 Nov. 1992, ''Newsbank'', http://www.newsbank.com. Accessed 8 May 2017.
 +
*"Software Expert Produced 'Madden' Football Video Game." ''Honolulu Star-Bulletin'', 26 Sept. 2009, ''Hawaii News Archive - Starbulletin.com'', http://archives.starbulletin.com/content/20090926_Software_expert_produced_Madden_football_video_game. Accessed 16 May 2017.
 +
*''Spirit of Discovery - Paradise in Hawaii''. http://web.archive.org/web/20020202123038/http://www.spiritofdiscovery.com:80/spirit.html. Accessed 16 May 2017.</small>
 +
 
 +
'''[[About:Research Methods|Research Methods]]:''' Actual mentions, interviews, online resources (see [[#Links|Links]])
  
 
===3DO===
 
===3DO===
*''3D Adventures'' (unreleased)
+
*''3D Adventures'' (unreleased) (Spirit of Discovery)
*''3D Football'' (unreleased)
+
*''3D Football'' (unreleased) (Sports Forum)
 +
:<small>Sports Forum was meant to be Park Place's sports label. [http://www.liontelpartners.com/press/park-place-productions-press-release.pdf] Park Place's 3DO titles were to be distributed by Acclaim. [https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2vgffr]</small>
  
 
===Commodore 64===
 
===Commodore 64===
 
*''ABC Monday Night Football'' (US Publisher: Data East)
 
*''ABC Monday Night Football'' (US Publisher: Data East)
 
:<small>Game Design: Season Ticket Productions</small>
 
:<small>Game Design: Season Ticket Productions</small>
*''Dream Team, The: 3 on 3 Challenge'' (US/CA Publisher: Data East)
+
*''The Dream Team: 3 on 3 Challenge'' (US/CA Publisher: Data East)
 
:<small>Game Design: Season Ticket Productions</small>
 
:<small>Game Design: Season Ticket Productions</small>
  
Line 29: Line 48:
 
:<small>Game Design: Subway Software</small>
 
:<small>Game Design: Subway Software</small>
 
*''Beat the House'' (US Publisher: Spirit of Discovery)
 
*''Beat the House'' (US Publisher: Spirit of Discovery)
*''Berenstain Bears Learn About Counting, The'' (US Publisher: Compton's New Media)
+
*''The Berenstain Bears Learn About Counting'' (US Publisher: Compton's New Media)
*''Bo Jackson Baseball'' (US Publisher: Data East)
+
*<div style="color:red">''Bo Jackson Baseball'' / ''TV Sports: Baseball'' (US Publisher: Data East; EU Publisher: Mindscape)</div>
*''Body Illustrated'' (US Publisher: Spirit of Discovery)
+
:<small>The Amiga and IBM versions were apparently done by [[Acme Interactive]], but [http://www.mobygames.com/user/sheet/userSheetId,48119/ Michael Knox's profile] lists the IBM version, and [https://groups.google.com/d/msg/rec.games.design/ue-sZCxLtaU/JRy7oNpK3YIJ an old Usenet post] mentions "contract work on Bo Jackson." Acme programmer Nigel Spencer said [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TlYpSZDnDI0 in a YouTube comment] that he wrote the Amiga, VGA, and EGA versions. Does that mean Park Place did the Tandy version?</small>
 
*''David Robinson Basketball'' (unreleased?) (Sega)
 
*''David Robinson Basketball'' (unreleased?) (Sega)
 
*''Draft & Print'' (US Publisher: Spirit of Discovery)
 
*''Draft & Print'' (US Publisher: Spirit of Discovery)
*''Dream Team, The: 3 on 3 Challenge'' (US/CA Publisher: Data East)
+
*''The Dream Team: 3 on 3 Challenge'' (US/CA Publisher: Data East)
 
:<small>Game Design: Season Ticket Productions</small>
 
:<small>Game Design: Season Ticket Productions</small>
 
*''Dvorak on Typing'' (US Publisher: Interplay)
 
*''Dvorak on Typing'' (US Publisher: Interplay)
 +
:<small>Re-released on CD-ROM as ''Typing for Today''. Macintosh version by Silicon & Synapse.</small>
 
*''Facts in Action'' (US Publisher: Spirit of Discovery)
 
*''Facts in Action'' (US Publisher: Spirit of Discovery)
*''Human Calculator, The'' (US Publisher: Compton's New Media)
+
*''The Human Calculator'' (US Publisher: Compton's New Media)
*''Learn to Type''? [http://www.altairlane.com/resume.html]
+
 
*''NFL Video Pro Football'' (US Publisher: Konami)
 
*''NFL Video Pro Football'' (US Publisher: Konami)
*''Typing for Today'' (US Publisher: Interplay)
 
  
 
===Famicom/NES===
 
===Famicom/NES===
Line 47: Line 65:
  
 
===Game Boy===
 
===Game Boy===
*''Chessmaster, The'' (US Publisher: Hi Tech Expressions; JP Publisher: Altron)
+
*''The Chessmaster'' (US Publisher: Hi Tech Expressions; JP Publisher: Altron)
*''New Chessmaster, The'' (US Publisher: Hi Tech Expressions; JP Publisher: Altron)
+
*''The New Chessmaster'' (US Publisher: Hi Tech Expressions; JP Publisher: Altron)
  
 
===Jaguar===
 
===Jaguar===
Line 54: Line 72:
  
 
===Macintosh===
 
===Macintosh===
*<div style="color:red">''Beat the House'' (US Publisher: Interplay)</div>
+
*<div style="color:red">''Beat the House'' (US Publisher: MacPlay)</div>
:<small>Did Park Place do this version?</small>
+
  
 
===Mega CD/Sega CD===
 
===Mega CD/Sega CD===
*''Kung Fu: The Legend Continues'' (unreleased)
+
*''Kung Fu: The Legend Continues'' (unreleased) (Sunsoft)
 
*''NFL's Greatest: San Francisco vs. Dallas 1978-1993'' (US Publisher: Sega)
 
*''NFL's Greatest: San Francisco vs. Dallas 1978-1993'' (US Publisher: Sega)
 
Development of ''ESPN Baseball Tonight'' and ''ESPN National Hockey Night'' was likely started at Park Place but finished at Sony Imagesoft. (Sony hired a number of former Park Place employees.)
 
  
 
===Mega Drive/Genesis===
 
===Mega Drive/Genesis===
 
*''Champions World Class Soccer'' (EU/US Publisher: Flying Edge; JP Publisher: Acclaim; BR Publisher: Tec Toy)
 
*''Champions World Class Soccer'' (EU/US Publisher: Flying Edge; JP Publisher: Acclaim; BR Publisher: Tec Toy)
*''Dan Marino Power Play Football'' (unreleased) (Virgin)
+
*''Dan Marino Football'' (unreleased) (Virgin) [http://www.oocities.org/~bootch1/jbuccellato_resume.pdf]
*''Dick Vitale's "Awesome, Baby!" College Hoops'' (US/AU Publisher: Time Warner Interactive)
+
:<small>Also referred to in various places as ''Dan Marino's Football'', ''Dan Marino Power Play Football'', ''Dan Marino's Power Play Football'', and ''Dan Marino's Touchdown Football''</small>
 
*''ESPN Baseball Tonight'' (US Publisher: Sony Imagesoft)
 
*''ESPN Baseball Tonight'' (US Publisher: Sony Imagesoft)
 
*''Jeopardy!'' (US Publisher: GameTek)
 
*''Jeopardy!'' (US Publisher: GameTek)
 
*''Jeopardy!: Deluxe Edition'' (US Publisher: GameTek)
 
*''Jeopardy!: Deluxe Edition'' (US Publisher: GameTek)
*''Jeopardy!: Sports Edition'' (US Publisher: GameTek)
 
 
*''Joe Montana Football'' (US/EU/JP Publisher: Sega)
 
*''Joe Montana Football'' (US/EU/JP Publisher: Sega)
*''John Madden Football / John Madden American Football'' (US/EU Publisher: Electronic Arts; BR Publisher: Tec Toy)
+
*''John Madden Football'' / ''John Madden American Football'' (US/EU Publisher: Electronic Arts; BR Publisher: Tec Toy)
*''Lennox Lewis Boxing'' (unreleased) (Acclaim)
+
*''Lennox Lewis Boxing'' (unreleased) (Acclaim) [http://web.archive.org/web/20090121041559/http://tkweb.com:80/en/about-tkweb]
 
*''Muhammad Ali Heavyweight Boxing'' (US/EU Publisher: Virgin)
 
*''Muhammad Ali Heavyweight Boxing'' (US/EU Publisher: Virgin)
*''NHL Hockey / EA Hockey / Pro Hockey'' (US/EU Publisher: Electronic Arts; JP Publisher: [[Electronic Arts Victor]])
+
*''NHL Hockey'' / ''EA Hockey'' / ''Pro Hockey'' (US/EU Publisher: Electronic Arts; JP Publisher: [[Electronic Arts Victor]])
*''Road to the Cup Hockey '94'' (unreleased) (Electro Brain) [http://www.linkedin.com/in/thomasschenck]
+
*''Road to the Cup Hockey '94'' (unreleased) (Electro Brain)
 +
 
 +
''NFL Quarterback Club'' was originally being developed by Park Place, but the company's problems at the time (as detailed above) forced Acclaim to hand it off to Iguana Entertainment. [http://segaretro.org/index.php?title=File:GamePlayers_US_0802.pdf&page=68]
 +
 
 +
''Dick Vitale's "Awesome, Baby!" College Hoops'' turns up on several profiles [http://www.mobygames.com/user/sheet/userSheetId,48119/] [https://www.linkedin.com/in/emmanuelvaldez] [http://www.mobygames.com/developer/sheet/view/developerId,13630/] [http://www.giantbomb.com/joe-brisbois/3040-60783/], yet nobody from Park Place is credited. Was this another game caught up in Park Place's internal problems?
  
Development of ''ESPN National Hockey Night'' and ''ESPN SpeedWorld'' was likely started at Park Place but finished at Sony Imagesoft. (Sony hired a number of former Park Place employees.)
+
The Genesis version of ''Lobo'' (unreleased) was originally being programmed at Park Place. The programmer joined [[Ocean of America]] and finished it there.
  
 
===Super Famicom/Super NES===
 
===Super Famicom/Super NES===
 
*''Champions World Class Soccer'' (JP/US Publisher: Acclaim)
 
*''Champions World Class Soccer'' (JP/US Publisher: Acclaim)
 +
*''Dan Marino Football'' (unreleased) (Virgin) [http://www.oocities.org/~bootch1/jbuccellato_resume.pdf] [https://archive.org/details/GamefanVolume1Issue09August1993?q=%22dan+marino%27s+football%22]
 +
:<small>Also referred to in various places as ''Dan Marino's Football'', ''Dan Marino Power Play Football'', ''Dan Marino's Power Play Football'', and ''Dan Marino's Touchdown Football''</small>
 
*''ESPN Baseball Tonight'' (US Publisher: Sony Imagesoft)
 
*''ESPN Baseball Tonight'' (US Publisher: Sony Imagesoft)
*''John Madden Football / Pro Football'' (US Publisher: Electronic Arts; JP Publisher: Imagineer)
+
*''John Madden Football'' / ''Pro Football'' (US Publisher: Electronic Arts; JP Publisher: Imagineer)
 
*''Kawasaki Caribbean Challenge'' (US Publisher: GameTek)
 
*''Kawasaki Caribbean Challenge'' (US Publisher: GameTek)
*''Kung Fu: The Legend Continues'' (unreleased)
+
*''Kung Fu: The Legend Continues'' (unreleased) (Sunsoft)
 +
*''Lobo'' (unreleased) (some graphics) (Ocean)
 +
:<small>Developer: Ocean of America; Programming: High Performance Games; Some Clay Modeling, Some 3D Modeling: Metropolis Digital; Some Model Digitization: Viewpoint DataLabs; Motion Capture: Biovision; Music Driver: Chip Level Designs</small>
 
*''Muhammad Ali Heavyweight Boxing'' (unreleased) (Virgin)
 
*''Muhammad Ali Heavyweight Boxing'' (unreleased) (Virgin)
 
*''NFL Football'' (US/JP Publisher: Konami)
 
*''NFL Football'' (US/JP Publisher: Konami)
 
*''NHLPA Hockey 93'' (US Publisher: Electronic Arts)
 
*''NHLPA Hockey 93'' (US Publisher: Electronic Arts)
 
*''Pigskin Footbrawl'' (unreleased) (RazorSoft)
 
*''Pigskin Footbrawl'' (unreleased) (RazorSoft)
 +
:<small>Originally contracted to Knight Technologies, this got caught up in Park Place's implosion, which led to RazorSoft suing for breach of contract. [http://law.justia.com/cases/oklahoma/court-of-appeals-civil/1995/4379.html] RazorSoft then brought in programmer Glen Volk to write a new version; he finished it, but the game's release was canceled.</small>
 
*''Road to the Cup Hockey '94'' (unreleased) (Electro Brain)
 
*''Road to the Cup Hockey '94'' (unreleased) (Electro Brain)
*''Super Slam Dunk / Magic Johnson no Super Slam Dunk'' (US/JP Publisher: Virgin)
+
*''Super Slam Dunk'' / ''Magic Johnson no Super Slam Dunk'' (US/JP Publisher: Virgin)
  
Development of ''ESPN National Hockey Night'' and ''ESPN SpeedWorld'' was likely started at Park Place but finished at Sony Imagesoft. (Sony hired a number of former Park Place employees.)
+
''NFL Quarterback Club'' was originally being developed by Park Place, but the company's problems at the time (as detailed above) forced Acclaim to hand it off to Iguana Entertainment. [http://segaretro.org/index.php?title=File:GamePlayers_US_0802.pdf&page=68]
 
+
''NFL Quarterback Club'' was originally being developed at Park Place. Unfortunately, Park Place programmers going to Sony delayed the game [http://groups.google.com/group/rec.games.video.sega/browse_thread/thread/e4889979e2de9ab5/85fd10f97253f8dd], and the final product was developed at Iguana. [http://www.mobygames.com/game/nfl-quarterback-club]
+
  
 
===Windows===
 
===Windows===
 
*''Beat the House'' (US Publisher: Interplay)
 
*''Beat the House'' (US Publisher: Interplay)
*''Jeopardy!'' (US Publisher: GameTek)
+
*''Beat the House 2'' (game design) (US Publisher: Interplay)
:<small>Jeopardy! Deluxe?</small>
+
:<small>Developer: Cetasoft</small>
*''Wheel of Fortune'' (US Publisher: GameTek)
+
*''Caesars Palace'' series (game design) (US Publisher: Interplay)
:<small>Wheel of Fortune Deluxe?</small>
+
:<small>Developer: Cetasoft</small>
 +
*<div style="color:red">''Dvorak on Typing'' (US Publisher: Interplay)</div>
 +
*''Galles Indy Extreme'' (unreleased)
 +
*''Jeopardy! Deluxe Edition'' (US Publisher: GameTek)
 +
*''Wheel of Fortune Deluxe Edition'' (US Publisher: GameTek)
  
 
==Links==
 
==Links==
 
*[http://www.mobygames.com/user/sheet/userSheetId,48119/ Michael Knox on MobyGames]
 
*[http://www.mobygames.com/user/sheet/userSheetId,48119/ Michael Knox on MobyGames]
 
*[http://forums.lostlevels.org/viewtopic.php?t=2121 Lost Levels thread]
 
*[http://forums.lostlevels.org/viewtopic.php?t=2121 Lost Levels thread]
*[http://www.robhowardstudios.com/resume.htm Rob Howard's resume]
+
*[http://web.archive.org/web/20120707025648/http://www.robhowardstudios.com/resume.htm Rob Howard's resume]
 
*[http://sankam.net/Resume.html John Scharmen's resume]
 
*[http://sankam.net/Resume.html John Scharmen's resume]
 
*[http://groups.google.com/group/misc.jobs.resumes/browse_thread/thread/727e15f32c700fe1/f46d844018ba91c Usenet post by former Park Place programmer Thomas Schenck]
 
*[http://groups.google.com/group/misc.jobs.resumes/browse_thread/thread/727e15f32c700fe1/f46d844018ba91c Usenet post by former Park Place programmer Thomas Schenck]
 +
*[https://www.linkedin.com/in/thomasschenck Thomas Schenck's LinkedIn]
 +
*Usenet want ads from 1994/1995 [https://groups.google.com/d/msg/sdnet.jobs/HUjHyml5ktg/uWq5Bc9Ou9cJ] [https://groups.google.com/d/msg/sdnet.jobs/kFXoO_Kl9ro/ellM_vGur1gJ] [https://groups.google.com/d/msg/sdnet.jobs/nyoY6K4f510/K6gmKRFyTP8J] [https://groups.google.com/d/msg/sdnet.jobs/EM46cKIVpzY/fiFwoIBIMVoJ]
 +
*[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jeIilKTf0OI Local TV report on Park Place Productions]
  
 
[[Category:Companies]]
 
[[Category:Companies]]

Latest revision as of 16:09, 21 September 2018

Park Place Productions logo

Park Place Productions (originally called Park Place Production Team; assumed name of Maktal, Inc.) was a development company near San Diego, California, started in 1989 by programmers Michael Knox and Troy Lyndon with $3,000 on Knox's credit card. Its first product, ABC Monday Night Football, sold 100,000 units (Sauer). In a few years, Park Place grew to be North America's largest independent game developer with over 100 employees and clients including Electronic Arts, Acclaim, and Virgin (Lyndon).

This meteoric rise brought rapid expansion. A green screen studio was built, which helped the company create more realistic sports games (Lyndon). Nearby contract developer Knight Technologies was acquired (Forhan 41). Software testing was moved in-house (then spun off into a company called Bug Busters) (Private). A publishing arm for DOS and Windows titles called Spirit of Discovery was formed ("Entrepreneur of the Year"), which was buoyed by a "hybrid publishing agreement" with Konami (Sauer). (Incidentally, the Knox family continued to use the name after they relocated to Kaneohe, Hawaii [Spirit of Discovery].) Park Place also branched out into edutainment and other applications such as CAD software (Sauer).

1991 brought what might have been the company's first major setback, the loss of programmer Jim Simmons to Electronic Arts. Simmons was a high school friend of Lyndon's who programmed the first John Madden Football and NHL Hockey games for the Sega Genesis. EA then opted to contract him directly for future upgrades, effectively cutting out Park Place ("John Madden Hockey").

Nevertheless, Park Place persevered, continuing to take on more projects from other publishers. However, by late 1993, the company had clearly overextended itself. As deadlines were missed, those same publishers quit paying and pulled their contracts ("Harsh"). At least one — RazorSoft — sued for breach of contract (District Court). Compounding matters, Lyndon left that November because of a dispute ("Empty"), though he remained a passive shareholder. Former employees accused Park Place of nepotism (as several members of Knox's family were employees) and religious zealotry, which Knox denied (Kunkel). Eventually the company couldn't make payroll ("Empty").

Sony, Park Place's largest customer at this point, offered to buy the beleaguered firm, but Knox refused to sell. As a result, 30 employees resigned on December 27, 1993, to join a new Sony Imagesoft operation in San Diego's Sorrento Valley (what became Sony Interactive Studios America/989 Studios) ("Empty"). Park Place attempted to rebuild with a much smaller staff, but the damage was done (Private). A multi-million dollar lawsuit was later filed against Sony, alleging the electronics giant attempted a hostile takeover ("African-American software company").

After leaving Park Place, Lyndon established Studio Arts Multimedia, which entered into an exclusive development contract with Corel. Most of these projects were canceled after that company decided to focus on its newly acquired WordPerfect software (Lyndon). Lyndon later ran Christian game maker Left Behind Games, started in 2001. Knox served on the board of directors for a time (Jenkins). Knox died of colon cancer on September 15, 2009, at age 48 ("Software Expert").

WORKS CITED

Research Methods: Actual mentions, interviews, online resources (see Links)

3DO

  • 3D Adventures (unreleased) (Spirit of Discovery)
  • 3D Football (unreleased) (Sports Forum)
Sports Forum was meant to be Park Place's sports label. [1] Park Place's 3DO titles were to be distributed by Acclaim. [2]

Commodore 64

  • ABC Monday Night Football (US Publisher: Data East)
Game Design: Season Ticket Productions
  • The Dream Team: 3 on 3 Challenge (US/CA Publisher: Data East)
Game Design: Season Ticket Productions

DOS

  • ABC Monday Night Football (US Publisher: Data East)
Game Design: Season Ticket Productions
  • Batman Returns (US/EU Publisher: Konami)
Game Design: Subway Software
  • Beat the House (US Publisher: Spirit of Discovery)
  • The Berenstain Bears Learn About Counting (US Publisher: Compton's New Media)
  • Bo Jackson Baseball / TV Sports: Baseball (US Publisher: Data East; EU Publisher: Mindscape)
The Amiga and IBM versions were apparently done by Acme Interactive, but Michael Knox's profile lists the IBM version, and an old Usenet post mentions "contract work on Bo Jackson." Acme programmer Nigel Spencer said in a YouTube comment that he wrote the Amiga, VGA, and EGA versions. Does that mean Park Place did the Tandy version?
  • David Robinson Basketball (unreleased?) (Sega)
  • Draft & Print (US Publisher: Spirit of Discovery)
  • The Dream Team: 3 on 3 Challenge (US/CA Publisher: Data East)
Game Design: Season Ticket Productions
  • Dvorak on Typing (US Publisher: Interplay)
Re-released on CD-ROM as Typing for Today. Macintosh version by Silicon & Synapse.
  • Facts in Action (US Publisher: Spirit of Discovery)
  • The Human Calculator (US Publisher: Compton's New Media)
  • NFL Video Pro Football (US Publisher: Konami)

Famicom/NES

  • Roundball: 2-on-2 Challenge (US/EU Publisher: Mindscape)

Game Boy

  • The Chessmaster (US Publisher: Hi Tech Expressions; JP Publisher: Altron)
  • The New Chessmaster (US Publisher: Hi Tech Expressions; JP Publisher: Altron)

Jaguar

  • 3D Football (unreleased) [3]

Macintosh

  • Beat the House (US Publisher: MacPlay)

Mega CD/Sega CD

  • Kung Fu: The Legend Continues (unreleased) (Sunsoft)
  • NFL's Greatest: San Francisco vs. Dallas 1978-1993 (US Publisher: Sega)

Mega Drive/Genesis

  • Champions World Class Soccer (EU/US Publisher: Flying Edge; JP Publisher: Acclaim; BR Publisher: Tec Toy)
  • Dan Marino Football (unreleased) (Virgin) [4]
Also referred to in various places as Dan Marino's Football, Dan Marino Power Play Football, Dan Marino's Power Play Football, and Dan Marino's Touchdown Football
  • ESPN Baseball Tonight (US Publisher: Sony Imagesoft)
  • Jeopardy! (US Publisher: GameTek)
  • Jeopardy!: Deluxe Edition (US Publisher: GameTek)
  • Joe Montana Football (US/EU/JP Publisher: Sega)
  • John Madden Football / John Madden American Football (US/EU Publisher: Electronic Arts; BR Publisher: Tec Toy)
  • Lennox Lewis Boxing (unreleased) (Acclaim) [5]
  • Muhammad Ali Heavyweight Boxing (US/EU Publisher: Virgin)
  • NHL Hockey / EA Hockey / Pro Hockey (US/EU Publisher: Electronic Arts; JP Publisher: Electronic Arts Victor)
  • Road to the Cup Hockey '94 (unreleased) (Electro Brain)

NFL Quarterback Club was originally being developed by Park Place, but the company's problems at the time (as detailed above) forced Acclaim to hand it off to Iguana Entertainment. [6]

Dick Vitale's "Awesome, Baby!" College Hoops turns up on several profiles [7] [8] [9] [10], yet nobody from Park Place is credited. Was this another game caught up in Park Place's internal problems?

The Genesis version of Lobo (unreleased) was originally being programmed at Park Place. The programmer joined Ocean of America and finished it there.

Super Famicom/Super NES

  • Champions World Class Soccer (JP/US Publisher: Acclaim)
  • Dan Marino Football (unreleased) (Virgin) [11] [12]
Also referred to in various places as Dan Marino's Football, Dan Marino Power Play Football, Dan Marino's Power Play Football, and Dan Marino's Touchdown Football
  • ESPN Baseball Tonight (US Publisher: Sony Imagesoft)
  • John Madden Football / Pro Football (US Publisher: Electronic Arts; JP Publisher: Imagineer)
  • Kawasaki Caribbean Challenge (US Publisher: GameTek)
  • Kung Fu: The Legend Continues (unreleased) (Sunsoft)
  • Lobo (unreleased) (some graphics) (Ocean)
Developer: Ocean of America; Programming: High Performance Games; Some Clay Modeling, Some 3D Modeling: Metropolis Digital; Some Model Digitization: Viewpoint DataLabs; Motion Capture: Biovision; Music Driver: Chip Level Designs
  • Muhammad Ali Heavyweight Boxing (unreleased) (Virgin)
  • NFL Football (US/JP Publisher: Konami)
  • NHLPA Hockey 93 (US Publisher: Electronic Arts)
  • Pigskin Footbrawl (unreleased) (RazorSoft)
Originally contracted to Knight Technologies, this got caught up in Park Place's implosion, which led to RazorSoft suing for breach of contract. [13] RazorSoft then brought in programmer Glen Volk to write a new version; he finished it, but the game's release was canceled.
  • Road to the Cup Hockey '94 (unreleased) (Electro Brain)
  • Super Slam Dunk / Magic Johnson no Super Slam Dunk (US/JP Publisher: Virgin)

NFL Quarterback Club was originally being developed by Park Place, but the company's problems at the time (as detailed above) forced Acclaim to hand it off to Iguana Entertainment. [14]

Windows

  • Beat the House (US Publisher: Interplay)
  • Beat the House 2 (game design) (US Publisher: Interplay)
Developer: Cetasoft
  • Caesars Palace series (game design) (US Publisher: Interplay)
Developer: Cetasoft
  • Dvorak on Typing (US Publisher: Interplay)
  • Galles Indy Extreme (unreleased)
  • Jeopardy! Deluxe Edition (US Publisher: GameTek)
  • Wheel of Fortune Deluxe Edition (US Publisher: GameTek)

Links